University of California Santa Cruz Police Department
UC Santa Cruz PD Policy Manual

 

Temporary Custody of Juveniles

325.1     PURPOSE AND SCOPE

This policy provides guidelines consistent with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act for juveniles taken into temporary custody by members of the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department (34 USC § 11133).

Guidance regarding contacting juveniles at schools or who may be victims is provided in the Child Abuse Policy.

325.1.1 DEFINITIONS

Definitions related to this policy include:

Juvenile non-offender - An abused, neglected, dependent, or alien juvenile who may be legally held for his/her own safety or welfare. This also includes any juvenile who may have initially been contacted for an offense that would not subject an adult to arrest (e.g., fine-only offense) but was taken into custody for his/her protection or for purposes of reuniting the juvenile with a parent, guardian, or other responsible person. Juveniles 11 years of age or younger are considered juvenile non-offenders even if they have committed an offense that would subject an adult to arrest.

Juvenile offender - A juvenile 12 to 17 years of age who is alleged to have committed an offense that would subject an adult to arrest (a non-status offense) (Welfare and Institutions Code § 602). It also includes an offense under Penal Code § 29610 for underage possession of a handgun or concealable firearm (28 CFR 31.303).

Non-secure custody - When a juvenile is held in the presence of an officer or other custody employee at all times and is not placed in a locked room, cell, or behind any locked doors. Juveniles in non-secure custody may be handcuffed but not to a stationary or secure object. Personal supervision, through direct visual monitoring and audio two-way communication is maintained. Monitoring through electronic devices, such as video, does not replace direct visual observation (Welfare and Institutions Code § 207.1(d); 15 CCR 1150).

Safety checks - Direct, visual observation personally by a member of this department performed at random intervals within time frames prescribed in this policy to provide for the health and welfare of juveniles in temporary custody.

Secure custody - When a juvenile offender is held in a locked room, a set of rooms, or a cell. Secure custody also includes being physically secured to a stationary object (15 CCR 1146).

Examples of secure custody include:

 (a) A juvenile left alone in an unlocked room within the secure perimeter of the adult temporary holding area.

 (b) A juvenile handcuffed to a rail.

 (c) A juvenile placed in a room that contains doors with delayed egress devices that have a delay of more than 30 seconds.

 (d) A juvenile being processed in a secure booking area when a non-secure booking area is available.

 (e) A juvenile left alone in a secure booking area after being photographed and fingerprinted.

 (f) A juvenile placed in a cell within the adult temporary holding area, whether or not the cell door is locked.

 (g) A juvenile placed in a room that is capable of being locked or contains a fixed object designed for cuffing or restricting movement.

Sight and sound separation - Located or arranged to prevent physical, visual, or auditory contact.

Status offender - A juvenile suspected of committing a criminal violation of the law that would not be a criminal violation but for the age of the offender. Examples may include running away, underage possession of tobacco, curfew violation, and truancy. A juvenile in custody on a   court order or warrant based upon a status offense is also a status offender. This includes the habitually disobedient or truant juvenile under Welfare and Institutions Code § 601 and any juvenile suspected of an offense that would not subject an adult to arrest (e.g., fine-only offense).

 

325.2     POLICY

The University of California Santa Cruz Police Department is committed to releasing juveniles from temporary custody as soon as reasonably practicable and keeping juveniles safe while they are in temporary custody at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department. Juveniles should be held in temporary custody only for as long as reasonably necessary for processing, transfer, or release.

 

325.3     JUVENILES WHO SHOULD NOT BE HELD

Juveniles who exhibit any of the following conditions should not be held at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department:

 (a) Unconscious

 (b) Seriously injured

 (c) A known suicide risk or obviously severely emotionally disturbed

 (d) Significantly intoxicated except when approved by the Shift Supervisor. A medical clearance shall be obtained for minors who are under the influence of drugs, alcohol, or any other intoxicating substance to the extent that they are unable to care for themselves (15 CCR 1151).

 (e) Extremely violent or continuously violent

Officers taking custody of a juvenile who exhibits any of the above conditions should take reasonable steps to provide medical attention or mental health assistance and notify a supervisor of the situation (15 CCR 1142; 15 CCR 1151). 

These juveniles should not be held at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department unless they have been evaluated by a qualified medical and/or mental health professional (15 CCR 1142).

If the officer taking custody of the juvenile believes the juvenile may be a suicide risk, the juvenile shall be under continuous direct supervision until evaluation, release, or a transfer is completed (15 CCR 1142).

325.3.1 EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE OF JUVENILES IN CUSTODY

When emergency medical attention is required for a juvenile, medical assistance will be called immediately. The Shift Supervisor shall be notified of the need for medical attention for the juvenile. Department members should administer first aid as applicable (15 CCR 1142).

325.3.2 SUICIDE PREVENTION OF JUVENILES IN CUSTODY

Department members should be alert to potential symptoms based upon exhibited behavior that may indicate the juvenile is a suicide risk. These symptoms may include depression, refusal to communicate, verbally threatening to kill him/herself, or any unusual behavior which may indicate the juvenile may harm him/herself while in either secure or non-secure custody (15 CCR 1142).

 

325.4     CUSTODY OF JUVENILES

Officers should take custody of a juvenile and temporarily hold the juvenile at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department when there is no other lawful and practicable alternative to temporary custody. Refer to the Child Abuse Policy for additional information regarding detaining a juvenile that is suspected of being a victim.

No juvenile should be held in temporary custody at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department without authorization of the arresting officer's supervisor or the Shift Supervisor. Juveniles taken into custody shall be held in non-secure custody unless otherwise authorized by this policy.

Any juvenile taken into custody shall be released to the care of the juvenile’s parent or other responsible adult or transferred to a juvenile custody facility or to other authority as soon as practicable and in no event shall a juvenile be held beyond six hours from the time of his/her entry into the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department (34 USC § 11133; Welfare and Institutions Code § 207.1(d)).

325.4.1 CUSTODY OF JUVENILE NON-OFFENDERS

Non-offenders taken into protective custody in compliance with the Child Abuse Policy should generally not be held at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department. Custodial arrangements should be made for non-offenders as soon as reasonably possible. Juvenile non- offenders shall not be held in secure custody (34 USC § 11133; Welfare and Institutions Code § 206).

Juveniles 11 years of age or younger who have committed an offense that would subject an adult to arrest may be held in non-secure custody for the offenses listed in Welfare and Institutions Code § 602(b) (murder and the sexual assault offenses) and should be referred to a probation officer for a placement determination.

325.4.2 CUSTODY OF JUVENILE STATUS OFFENDERS

Status offenders should generally be released by citation or with a warning rather than taken into temporary custody. However, officers may take custody of a status offender if requested to do so by a parent or legal guardian in order to facilitate reunification (e.g., transported home or to the station to await a parent). Juvenile status offenders shall not be held in secure custody (34 USC § 11133).

325.4.3 CUSTODY OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS

Juvenile offenders should be held in non-secure custody while at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department unless another form of custody is authorized by this policy or is necessary due to exigent circumstances.

Generally, a juvenile offender may be taken into custody when authorized by a court order or when there is probable cause to believe the juvenile has committed an offense that would subject an adult to arrest (Welfare and Institutions Code § 625).

A juvenile offender who is 14 years of age or older and suspected of using a firearm in violation of Welfare and Institutions Code § 625.3 shall be transported to a juvenile facility.

A juvenile offender suspected of committing murder or a sex offense that may subject a juvenile to criminal jurisdiction under Welfare and Institutions Code § 602(b), or a serious or violent felony should be referred to a probation officer for a decision on further detention.

In all other cases the juvenile offender may be:

 (a) Released upon warning or citation.

 (b) Released to a parent or other responsible adult after processing at the Department.

 (c) Referred to a probation officer for a decision regarding whether to transport the juvenile offender to a juvenile facility.

 (d) Transported to his/her home or to the place where the juvenile offender was taken into custody (Welfare and Institutions Code § 207.2).

In determining which disposition is appropriate, the investigating officer or supervisor shall prefer the alternative that least restricts the juvenile’s freedom of movement, provided that alternative is compatible with the best interests of the juvenile and the community (Welfare and Institutions Code § 626).

Whenever a juvenile offender under the age of 14 is taken into custody, the officer should take reasonable steps to verify and document the child's ability to differentiate between right and wrong, particularly in relation to the alleged offense (Penal Code § 26).

 

325.5     ADVISEMENTS

Officers shall take immediate steps to notify the juvenile’s parent, guardian, or a responsible relative that the juvenile is in custody, the location where the juvenile is being held, and the intended disposition (Welfare and Institutions Code § 627).

Whenever a juvenile is taken into temporary custody, he/she shall be given the Miranda rights advisement regardless of whether questioning is intended (Welfare and Institutions Code § 625).

Anytime a juvenile offender is placed in secure custody, he/she shall be informed of the purpose of the secure custody, the length of time the secure custody is expected to last, and of the maximum six-hour limitation (Welfare and Institutions Code § 207.1(d)).

Juveniles taken into custody for an offense shall immediately be advised (or at least within one hour from being taken into custody, if possible) that they may make three telephone calls: one call completed to his/her parent or guardian; one to a responsible relative or his/her employer; and another call completed to an attorney. The calls shall be at no expense to the juvenile when completed to telephone numbers within the local calling area. Juveniles should be asked whether they are a caregiver and provided two more phone calls in the same manner as provided to adults in the Temporary Custody of Adults Policy (Welfare and Institutions Code § 627; Penal Code § 851.5).

 

325.6     JUVENILE CUSTODY LOGS

Any time a juvenile is held in custody at the Department, the custody shall be promptly and properly documented in the juvenile custody log, including:

 (a) Identifying information about the juvenile.

 (b) Date and time of arrival and release from the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department (15 CCR 1150).

 (c) Shift Supervisor notification and approval to temporarily hold the juvenile.

 (d) Any charges for which the juvenile is being held and classification of the juvenile as a juvenile offender, status offender, or non-offender.

 (e) Any changes in status (e.g., emergency situations, unusual incidents).

 (f) Time of all safety checks.

 (g) Any medical and other screening requested and completed (15 CCR 1142).

 (h) Circumstances that justify any secure custody (Welfare and Institutions Code § 207.1(d); 15 CCR 1145).

 (i) Any other information that may be required by other authorities, such as compliance inspectors or a local juvenile court authority.

The Shift Supervisor shall initial the log to approve the custody, including any secure custody, and shall also initial the log when the juvenile is released.

 

325.7     NO-CONTACT REQUIREMENTS

Sight and sound separation shall be maintained between all juveniles and adults while in custody at the Department (34 USC § 11133; Welfare and Institutions Code § 207.1(d); Welfare and Institutions Code § 208; 15 CCR 1144). There should also be sight and sound separation between non-offenders and juvenile and status offenders.

In situations where brief or accidental contact may occur (e.g., during the brief time a juvenile   is being fingerprinted and/or photographed in booking), a member of the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department (trained in the supervision of persons in custody) shall maintain a constant, immediate, side-by-side presence with the juvenile or the adult to minimize any contact. If inadvertent or accidental contact does occur, reasonable efforts shall be taken to end the contact (15 CCR 1144).

 

325.8     TEMPORARY CUSTODY REQUIREMENTS

Members and supervisors assigned to monitor or process any juvenile at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department shall ensure the following:

 (a) The Shift Supervisor should be notified if it is anticipated that a juvenile may need to remain at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department more than four hours. This will enable the Shift Supervisor to ensure no juvenile is held at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department more than six hours.

 (b) A staff member of the same sex shall supervise personal hygiene activities and care, such as changing clothing or using the restroom, without direct observation to allow for privacy.

 (c) Personal safety checks and significant incidents/activities shall be noted on the log.

 (d) Juveniles in custody are informed that they will be monitored at all times, except when using the toilet.

  1. There shall be no viewing devices, such as peep holes or mirrors, of which the juvenile is not aware.
  2. This does not apply to surreptitious and legally obtained recorded

 (e) Juveniles shall have reasonable access to toilets and wash basins (15 CCR 1143).

 (f) Food shall be provided if a juvenile has not eaten within the past four hours or is otherwise in need of nourishment, including any special diet required for the health of the juvenile (15 CCR 1143).

 (g) Juveniles shall have reasonable access to a drinking fountain or water (15 CCR 1143).

 (h) Juveniles shall have reasonable opportunities to stand and stretch, particularly if handcuffed or restrained in any way.

 (i) Juveniles shall have privacy during family, guardian, and/or lawyer visits (15 CCR 1143).

 (j) Juveniles shall be permitted to remain in their personal clothing unless the clothing is taken as evidence or is otherwise unsuitable or inadequate for continued wear while in custody (15 CCR 1143).

 (k) Blankets shall be provided as reasonably necessary (15 CCR 1143).

  1. The supervisor should ensure that there is an adequate supply of clean

 (l) Adequate shelter, heat, light, and ventilation should be provided without compromising security or enabling escape.

 (m) Juveniles shall have adequate furnishings, including suitable chairs or benches.

 (n) Juveniles shall have the right to the same number of telephone calls as an adult in temporary custody.

 (o) No discipline may be administered to any juvenile, nor may juveniles be subjected to corporal or unusual punishment, humiliation, or mental abuse (15 CCR 1142).

 

325.9     USE OF RESTRAINT DEVICES

Juvenile offenders may be handcuffed in accordance with the Handcuffing and Restraints Policy. A juvenile offender may be handcuffed at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department when the juvenile presents a heightened risk. However, non-offenders and status offenders should not be handcuffed unless they are combative or threatening (15 CCR 1142).

Other restraints shall only be used after less restrictive measures have failed and with the approval of the Shift Supervisor. Restraints shall only be used so long as it reasonably appears necessary for the juvenile's protection or the protection of others (15 CCR 1142).

Juveniles in restraints shall be kept away from other unrestrained juveniles or monitored in such a way as to protect the juvenile from abuse (15 CCR 1142).

 

325.10     PERSONAL PROPERTY

The officer taking custody of a juvenile offender or status offender at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department shall ensure a thorough search of the juvenile’s property is made and all property is removed from the juvenile, especially those items that could compromise safety, such as pens, pencils, and belts.

The personal property of a juvenile should be placed in a property bag. The property should be inventoried in the juvenile’s presence and sealed into the bag. The property should be kept in a monitored or secure location until the juvenile is released from the custody of the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department.

 

325.11     SECURE CUSTODY

Only juvenile offenders 14 years of age or older may be placed in secure custody (Welfare and Institutions Code § 207; 15 CCR 1145). Shift Supervisor approval is required before placing a juvenile offender in secure custody. 

Secure custody should only be used for juvenile offenders when there is a reasonable belief that the juvenile is a serious risk of harm to him/herself or others. Factors to be considered when determining if the juvenile offender presents a serious security risk to him/herself or others include the following (15 CCR 1145):

 (a) Age, maturity, and delinquent history

 (b) Severity of offense for which the juvenile was taken into custody

 (c) The juvenile offender’s behavior

 (d) Availability of staff to provide adequate supervision or protection of the juvenile offender

 (e) Age, type, and number of other individuals in custody at the facility

Members of this department shall not use secure custody for convenience when non-secure custody is, or later becomes, a reasonable option (15 CCR 1145).

When practicable and when no locked enclosure is available, handcuffing one hand of a juvenile offender to a fixed object while otherwise maintaining the juvenile in non-secure custody should be considered as the method of secure custody. An employee must be present at all times to ensure the juvenile’s safety while secured to a stationary object (15 CCR 1148).

Juveniles shall not be secured to a stationary object for more than 60 minutes. Supervisor approval is required to secure a juvenile to a stationary object for longer than 60 minutes and every 30 minutes thereafter (15 CCR 1148). Supervisor approval should be documented.

The decision for securing a minor to a stationary object for longer than 60 minutes and every 30 minutes thereafter shall be based upon the best interests of the juvenile offender (15 CCR 1148).

325.11.1 LOCKED ENCLOSURES

A thorough inspection of the area shall be conducted before placing a juvenile into the enclosure. A second inspection shall be conducted after removing the juvenile. Any damage noted to the room should be photographed and documented in the crime report.

The following requirements shall apply to a juvenile offender who is held inside a locked enclosure:

 (a) The juvenile shall constantly be monitored by an audio/video system during the entire custody.

 (b) Juveniles shall have constant auditory access to department members (15 CCR 1147).

 (c) Initial placement into and removal from a locked enclosure shall be logged (Welfare and Institutions Code § 207.1(d)).

 (d) Unscheduled safety checks to provide for the health and welfare of the juvenile by a staff member, no less than once every 15 minutes, shall occur (15 CCR 1147; 15 CCR 1151).

  1. All safety checks shall be logged.
  2. The safety check should involve questioning the juvenile as to his/her well-being (sleeping juveniles or apparently sleeping juveniles should be awakened).
  3. Requests or concerns of the juvenile should be logged.

 (e) Males and females shall not be placed in the same locked room (15 CCR 1147).

 (f) Juvenile offenders should be separated according to severity of the crime (e.g., felony or misdemeanor).

 (g) Restrained juveniles shall not be mixed in a cell or room with unrestrained juveniles.

 

325.12     SUICIDE ATTEMPT, DEATH, OR SERIOUS INJURY OF A JUVENILE

The Shift Supervisor will ensure procedures are in place to address the suicide attempt, death, or serious injury of any juvenile held at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department (15 CCR 1142; 15 CCR 1047). The procedures will address:

 (a) Immediate notification of the on-duty supervisor, Chief of Police, and Investigation Division Supervisor.

 (b) Notification of the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis of the

 (c) Notification of the appropriate prosecutor.

 (d) Notification of the University of California attorney.

 (e) Notification to the coroner.

 (f) Notification of the juvenile court.

 (g) In the case of a death, providing a report to the Attorney General under Government Code 12525 within 10 calendar days of the death, and forwarding the same report to the Board of State and Community Corrections within the same time frame (15 CCR 1046).

 (h) A medical and operational review of deaths and suicide attempts pursuant to 15 CCR 1046.

 (i) Evidence preservation.

 

325.13     INTERVIEWING OR INTERROGATING JUVENILE SUSPECTS

No interview or interrogation of a juvenile should occur unless the juvenile has the apparent capacity to consent, and does consent to an interview or interrogation.

Prior to conducting a custodial interrogation, including the waiver of Miranda rights, an officer shall permit a juvenile 15 years of age or younger to consult with legal counsel in person, by telephone, or by video conference. The consultation may not be waived by the juvenile. The requirement to consult with legal counsel does not apply when (Welfare and Institutions Code § 625.6):

 (a) Information is necessary to protect life or property from an imminent threat.

 (b) The questions are limited to what is reasonably necessary to obtain the information relating to the threat.

 

325.13.1 MANDATORY RECORDINGS OF JUVENILES

Any interrogation of an individual under 18 years of age who is in custody and suspected          of committing murder shall be audio and video recorded when the interview takes place at a department facility, jail, detention facility, or other fixed place of detention. The recording shall include the entire interview and a Miranda advisement preceding the interrogation (Penal Code § 859.5).

This recording is not mandatory when (Penal Code § 859.5):

 (a) Recording is not feasible because of exigent circumstances that are later documented in a report.

 (b) The individual refuses to have the interrogation recorded, including a refusal any time during the interrogation, and the refusal is documented in a report. If feasible, the refusal shall be electronically recorded.

 (c) The custodial interrogation occurred in another state by law enforcement officers of that state, unless the interrogation was conducted with the intent to avoid the requirements of Penal Code § 859.5.

 (d) The interrogation occurs when no member conducting the interrogation has a reason to believe that the individual may have committed murder. Continued custodial interrogation concerning that offense shall be electronically recorded if the interrogating member develops a reason to believe the individual committed murder.

 (e) The interrogation would disclose the identity of a confidential informant or would jeopardize the safety of an officer, the individual being interrogated, or another individual. Such circumstances shall be documented in a report.

 (f) A recording device fails despite reasonable maintenance and the timely repair or replacement is not feasible.

 (g) The questions are part of a routine processing or booking, and are not an

 (h) The suspect is in custody for murder and the interrogation is unrelated to  a  However, if any information concerning a murder is mentioned during the interrogation, the remainder of the interrogation shall be recorded.

These recordings shall be retained until a conviction is final and all direct and habeas corpus appeals are exhausted, a court no longer has any jurisdiction over the individual, or the prosecution for that offense is barred (Penal Code § 859.5; Welfare and Institutions Code § 626.8).

 

325.14     FORMAL BOOKING

No juvenile offender shall be formally booked without the authorization of the arresting officer's supervisor, or in his/her absence, the Shift Supervisor.

Any juvenile 14 years of age or older who is taken into custody for a felony, or any juvenile whose acts amount to a sex crime, shall be booked, fingerprinted, and photographed.

For all other acts defined as crimes, juveniles may be booked, fingerprinted or photographed upon the approval from the Shift Supervisor or Detective Bureau supervisor, giving due consideration to the following:

 (a) The gravity of the offense

 (b) The past record of the offender

 (c) The age of the offender

 

325.15     RELEASE OF INFORMATION CONCERNING JUVENILES

Court decisions and legislation have combined to carefully specify situations in which information may be given out or exchanged when a case involves a juvenile. Members of this department shall not divulge any information regarding juveniles unless they are certain of the legal authority to do so.

A copy of the current policy of the juvenile court concerning authorized release of information and appropriate acknowledgment forms shall be kept with copies of this procedure in the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department Policy Manual. Such releases are authorized by Welfare and Institutions Code § 827.

Welfare and Institutions Code § 828 authorizes the release of certain information to other agencies. It shall be the responsibility of the Communications Manager and the appropriate Detective Bureau supervisors to ensure that personnel of those bureaus act within legal guidelines.

 

325.16     BOARD OF STATE AND COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS CERTIFICATION

The Patrol Division Commander shall coordinate the procedures related to the custody of juveniles held at the University of California Santa Cruz Police Department and ensure any required certification is maintained (Welfare and Institution Code § 210.2).

 

325.17     RELIGIOUS ACCOMMODATION

Juveniles have the right to the same religious accommodation as adults in temporary custody (see the Temporary Custody of Adults Policy).

 

 

 

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